Elevations range from sea level to … In this manner Russia gained a foothold on the northwestern coast of North America. The islands were also a stopping point for hundreds of aircraft sent from California to Russia as part of the war effort. The pair of ships were separated during a storm, allowing Chirikov to discover several eastern islands of the Aleutian group, while Bering discovered several of the western islands (including Mount Saint Elias). They are spread out over an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and go out about 1,200 mi (1,931 km) west from the Alaska Peninsula toward … Russia was in a difficult financial position and feared losing the Alaskan territory without compensation in a future conflict, especially to their rivals the British, who could easily capture the hard-to-defend region. Aleut Fact Sheet (Unangan) Native American Facts For Kids was written for young people learning about the Aleut tribe for school or home-schooling reports. The Aleutian Trench reaches a maximum depth of 26,604 feet (8,109 metres) at about 51° N, 178° W. The average slopes of its northern side range between 3° and 4°, while those of its even shallower southern … This was the first village corporation to declare and pay a dividend to its shareholders. This type of climate is only comparable to those of: Iceland, Tierra del Fuego and neighboring Alaska Peninsula. The Aleutian Islands campaign, conducted by the United States in the Aleutian Islands, part of the Alaska Territory, in the American theater and the Pacific theater of World War II starting on June 3, 1942. Bestow American republicanism upon the territory, he urged, "and you will bestow what is better than all you can receive, whether quintals of fish, sands of gold, choicest fur or most beautiful ivory.". As of this writing, there has been no further occupation of American soil by an invading force. The raising of blue foxes has furnished employment for many as well. They mark a line between the Bering Sea and the Pacific Gulf of Alaska. The Russians captured otter pelts from the Aleutian Islands, through the Gulf of Alaska, along the Alaska Panhandle, and south, even to California. The chain of small islands that make up the Aleutian Islands separates the Bering Sea from the main part of the Pacific Ocean. Crossing longitude 180°, they are the furthest West part of the United States Nearly all the islands are part of Alaska but at the extreme western end are the Commander Islands which are in Russia. They are in the … The Aleuts survived on the islands' bounty and the surrounding marine environment, developing fine skills in hunting, fishing, and basketry. May 16, 2019. They form part of the state of Alaska in the United States. With the Bering Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Aleutians’ sole connection to the rest of Alaska is with the Alaska Peninsula. The Aleutian Islands, known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, comprise five groups: the Fox which is nearest to the mainland, Islands of Four Mountains, Andreanof, Rat and Near islands, the smallest and most western group. A partially submerged continuation of the Aleutian … Opening with a crushing attack upon Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 that … The Aleutian Islands campaign was a military campaign conducted by the United States and Japan in the Aleutian Islands, part of the Territory of Alaska, in the American theater and the Pacific theater of World War II starting on June 3, 1942. These two groups speak mutually intelligible dialects and are related to the Eskimo. The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. At one time, an Aleut commonly spoke Aleut, Russian and English. The Aleutian Islands harbor some of the most diverse and dense aggregations of cold water corals known; the density and diversity of these Alaskan corals rival tropical coral reefs. . Fox Islands, easternmost group of the Aleutian Islands, southwestern Alaska, U.S.The islands extend about 300 miles (500 km) southwest from the Alaska Peninsula and are part of the extensive Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The islands, including their 57 volcanoes, are in the northern part of the Circum-Pacific chain of volcanoes, commonly referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire. On some of the islands, such as Adak and Amaknak, there are a few coniferous trees growing, remnants of the Russian period. Nearly all the archipelago is part of Alaska and usually considered as being in the "Alaskan Bush," including the small, geologically-related, and remote Komandor Islands which are a part of Russia, at the extreme western end. They are spread out over an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and go out about 1,200 mi (1,931 km) west from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula. AskMen Editors. The survivors of Bering's party reached the Kamchatka Peninsula in a boat constructed from the wreckage of their ship, and reported that the islands were rich in fur-bearing animals. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article A mysterious, previously undiscovered supervolcano may be lurking beneath Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Aleutian Islands 3 June 1942-24 August 1943 After securing strategically located bases during its war with China, Japan set out to create its long-coveted greater east Asia co-prosperity empire. He is now known in the Orthodox Church as St. Herman of Alaska. The Russians were ruthless in their expansion, using technology and cruelty to enslave the Aleuts, especially for sea otter hunting. Aleutian Islands • Arctic Alaska • Bush Alaska • Interior • Kenai Peninsula • Mat‑Su Valley • North Slope • Southeast • Seward Peninsula • Southcentral • Southwest •, Anchorage • Barrow • Bethel • Dillingham • Fairbanks • Homer • Juneau • Kenai • Ketchikan • Kodiak • Kotzebue • Nome • Palmer • Petersburg • Seward • Sitka • Soldotna • Unalaska (Dutch Harbor) • Valdez • Wasilla, Alaska Railroad • Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport • Alaska Marine Highway • Bush airplane. Aleutian Islands əlo͞o´shən , chain of rugged, volcanic islands curving c.1,200 mi (1,900 km) west from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula and approaching Russia's Komandorski Islands . The Aleutian Islands (how to say: /əˈluːʃən/; possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands. , The Aleutians are home to abundant wildlife, including 40,000,000 seabirds, rare Asiatic migrant birds, sea lions and fur seals. Because of the location of the islands, stretching like a broken bridge from Asia to North America, many anthropologists believe they were a route for the first human occupants of the Americas. Fish and Wildlife Service) covers over 4,200 square miles and extends between Attu Island on the west and Unimak Island on the east. In 1947, the Wrangell Institute became an elementary school, and eventually closed in 1975. The Aleutian Islands (how to say: /əˈluːʃən/; possibly from Chukchi aliat, " island ") are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands. Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014, by NASA's Aqua satellite. 0. . January 12, 2015 . Hunters made their weapons and watercraft. On April 9th Sumner made a major speech advocating the treaty, and covering in depth the history, the climate, the natural configuration, the population, the resources—the forests, mines, furs, fisheries—of Alaska.  The islands occupy an area of 6,821 square miles and extend for 1,200 miles from Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Attu Lost Its Entire PopulationPrior to the Japanese invasion, Attu had a population of 44, nearly all … The almost 70 islands form an arc that extends for about 1,100 miles (1,800 kilometers) from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula to Attu Island in the North Pacific. Learn Aleutian Islands facts for kids. The principal settlements were on Unalaska Island. The highest and lowest temperatures recorded on the islands are 78 °F (26 °C) and 5 °F (−15 °C) respectively. The Alaska Marine Highway passes through the islands. During his career of nearly thirty years, he displayed intense zeal. The Aleutian Islands are a remarkable place, with a rich diversity of life. The earliest known evidence of human occupation in the Americas is much further south, in New Mexico and Peru; the earliest human sites in Alaska have probably been submerged by rising waters during the current interglacial period. These cloud formations were seen over the western Aleutian Islands. We encourage students and teachers to visit our … Siberian fur hunters flocked to the Commander Islands and gradually moved eastward across the Aleutian Islands to the mainland. Aleutian Islands, chain of small islands that separate the Bering Sea (north) from the main portion of the Pacific Ocean (south). The Aleutian Islands are a chain of small volcanic islands forming an island arc situated in the Northern Pacific Ocean, and extending about 1,200 miles westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula … November 9, 2020 Posted by: Category: Uncategorized; No Comments . All these island arcs lie between the North American plates and the Pacific Plate and experience a lot of seismic activity, but are still habitable. Establishing a base on Adak, about 250 miles from Kiska, allowed U.S. forces to mount a successful off… The islands, with their 57 volcanoes, are in the northern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. In 1940, the United States established a naval base in Dutch Harbor, one of the few good harbors on the chain. These trees had originally been brought from Sitka, where summers reach 14 ºC. Soon, said Sumner, "A practical race of intrepid navigators will swarm the coast ready for any enterprise of business or patriotism. In 1823 Ivan Veniaminof, of the Russian Orthodox Church, known as the "Enlightener of the Aleuts," arrived in Unalaska. In this zone the summer temperatures are moderated by the open waters of the Bering Sea, but winter temperatures are more continental in nature due to the presence of sea ice during the coldest months of the year. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. The growing season lasts from the beginning of June to the middle of September, but agriculture is limited to the raising of a few vegetables. Russia had been a valuable ally during the Civil War, while Britain had been an open enemy. In the 1760s, the Russian merchant Andrean Tolstykh made a detailed census in the vicinity of Adak Island and extended Russian citizenship to the Aleuts. He spent the rest of his life on this island, where he cared for orphans, ran a school and continued his missionary work. They are in the Northern Pacific Ocean. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_6',169,'0','0'])); During his third and last voyage, in 1778, Captain James Cook surveyed the eastern portion of the Aleutian archipelago, accurately determined the position of some of the more important islands and corrected many errors of former navigators. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) became law in 1971, which allowed the local land and financial resources to be under the control of Native corporations. Major Earthquake Hits Off Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The Aleutian Islands (how to say: /əˈluːʃən/; possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands. Denizens of Unalaska need only to climb one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mt. The oldest was Iliuliuk (also called Unalaska), settled in 1760-1775, with a customs house, a Methodist Mission and orphanage, and an Orthodox church. Aleutian clouds These cloud formations were seen over the western Aleutian Islands. aleutian islands facts. They argued that the nation's strategic interests favored the treaty. Most of the Aleutian Islands are composed of sedimentary rocks from granitic and metamorphic rocks from Oligocene - Miocene. South Of Aleutian Islands has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 4 earthquakes in the past 365 days The Island is only about 2 miles long. The Aleutians World War II Campaign National Historic Area Visitors Center opened in June 2002. The Aleutian Islands (how to say: /əˈluːʃən/; possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands. It seemed wise to help Russia while discomforting the British. Aleut, a native of the Aleutian Islands and the western portion of the Alaska Peninsula of northwestern North America. A good scholar, he cited the testimony of geographers and navigators: Alexander von Humboldt, Joseph Billings, Yuri Lisiansky, Fyodor Petrovich Litke, Otto von Kotzebue, Portlock, James Cook, Meares, Ferdinand von Wrangel. The Aleutian Islands, also called the Aleut Islands or Aleutic Islands and known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller islands. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Aleutian World War II National Historic Area Visitor Center. The climate is characterized by frequent cyclonic storms and high winds, and during calm periods the region is often covered by a dense fog. To date, 97 species or subspecies of corals have been reported from the Aleutian Islands… Share Tweet Flip. Prior to the early 20th century, the Aleutian Islands were essentially ignored by the United States Armed Forces, although the islands played a small role in the Bering Sea Arbitration when a number of British … Today, the economy is primarily based upon fishing, and, to a lesser extent, the presence of American military. The Aleutian Islands consequently belonged to Russia, until that country transferred all its possessions in North America to the United States in 1867. Shares “Japan invaded Alaska in WWII. Following the return of their crews to Russia, fur hunters began sailing to the Aleutian Islands in pursuit of sea otters, foxes, fur seals, and other valuable fur-bearers. Aleutian Islands: The long string of islands that form the Aleutian Islands are mostly uninhabited by people. Summer weather in the archipelago is much cooler than Southeast Alaska (Sitka), but the winter temperature of the islands and of the Alaska Panhandle is very nearly the same. They are in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Formerly called the Catherine Archipelago, the Aleutian Islands comprise some 150 mostly volcanic islands extending twelve thousand miles west of the Alaskan Peninsula; the four island groups are a … This is primarily because the southern shores of the islands are warmed by the Kuroshio, the Japanese current. Secretary of State William H. Seward, who had long favored expansion, and the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Charles Sumner supported the purchase. The first public school in Unalaska opened in 1885, with an enrollment of 45 students. However, this list and the facts presented show that that is not the case. On the less-mountainous islands, the raising of sheep and reindeer was once believed to be practicable. Their color variations are probably due to differences in temperature and in the size of water droplets that make up the clouds. But these trees, some of them estimated to be two hundred years old, rarely reach a height of even ten feet, and many of them are still less than five feet tall. Alaska is the largest state in the United States in land area at 586,412 square miles … In Aleutian Islands …of the Alaska Peninsula to Attu Island, Alaska, U.S. The Aleutian Islands are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to the U.S. state of Alaska. Background The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The Aleuts speak three mutually-intelligible dialects, and are closely related to the Eskimo-Aleut language family. . After the American purchase further development of the Aleutians took place. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. These cloud formations were seen over the western Aleutian Islands. The Aleut or Unangan (Eastern and Attuan) and Unangas (Atkan or Western) language was spoken by the Unangan people before the Russian fur traders and Scandinavian fishermen came to the Aleutians. American forces invaded Japanese-held Attu and defeated the Japanese, subsequently regaining control of all the islands. In the only two invasions of the United States during the war, a small Japanese force occupied the islands … Rat Islands, uninhabited group of the Aleutian Islands, southwestern Alaska, U.S.They extend about 110 miles (175 km) southeast of the Near Islands and west of the Andreanof Islands.The largest of the islands are Amchitka, Kiska, and Semisopochnoi.Separated from the Andreanof Islands by Amchitka Pass, one of the main navigational lines through the Aleutian Islands, the Rat Islands … Furthermore, there has been no conflict or attack warranting the description of “battle.” The Aleutian Islands Campaign remains the last battle fought in US territory. The islands form a natural bridge between the continents and are believed to have been the stepping stones of the first inhabitants to enter North America. Not surprisingly, Shemya was not the only Island to have these giant skeleton discoveries. Encyclopedia.com. The coasts are rocky and surf-worn, and the approaches are exceedingly dangerous, the land rising immediately from the coasts to steep, bold mountains. To date, 97 species or subspecies of corals have been reported from the Aleutian Islands, and 25 of these species are believed to be endemic to the region. Various other Islands of the Aleutian chain had enormous bones being found by different military and scientific personell between the 1930's and 1940's. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, The Aleuts of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, Area Specific Management for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska Native History and Cultures Timeline, Treaty with Russia for the Purchase of Alaska, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Aleutian_Islands&oldid=1018380, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. In 1977, the Ounalashka Corporation (a real estate leasing and development company formed to manage the lands transferred to Alaska located in Unalaska) declared a dividend. It is composed of a series of sedimentary islands capped by steep … The general elevation is greatest in the eastern islands, reaching up to 6,230 feet, and least in the western islands. When the Japanese bombed Unalaska Island and invaded Attu and Kiska islands in June 1942, American defenses in the Aleutians consisted of an army and naval base at Unalaska and an army airfield on nearby Umnak Island, both 700 miles east of Kiska. In … They are in the Northern Pacific Ocean.They are spread out over an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and go out about 1,200 mi (1,931 km) west from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula. Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014, by NASA's Aqua satellite. The baskets are noted for being finely woven with carefully shredded stalks of beach rye. This area was of great strategic interest, made clear on June 3, 1942 when the base was attacked by Japan. The Aleutians are home to sea otters, seals, puffins, fulmars, murres, and millions of seabirds which use the islands as nesting habitat. The annual precipitation ranges from 32 to 65 inches (810 to 1,650 mm), and Unalaska, with about 250 rainy days per year, is said to be one of the rainiest places within the United States. Commerce will find new arms; the country new defenders; the national flag new hands to bear it aloft." The name Aleut derives from the Russian; the people refer to themselves as the Unangax^ and the Sugpiaq. Bering's ship wrecked and he lost his life on the Komandorski Islands (Commander Islands) that now bear his name, (Bering Island). Aleutian Island Ecosystem. The trench reaches depths of 7620 m (25,000 ft) in some places. Interesting Battle of the Aleutian Islands Facts: The Battle began when two Japanese aircraft carriers attacked the U.S. Navy base in Dutch Harbor on Amaknak Island of the Aleutian Islands on June 3 and 4, 1942. This page was last modified on 15 December 2020, at 14:18. The Aleutian Islands May 15, 2014 JPEG In its northward creep, the Pacific tectonic plate rubs against the North American plate, giving rise to the famous San Andreas and Denali strike-slip faults. This change of direction corresponds to a curve in the line of volcanic fissures that have contributed their products to the building of the islands. Attu was occupied by forty-five members of the indigenous Aleut ethnic groups and a young white American couple, Charles and Etta Jones. Pribilof Islands Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Sweeping westward from the tip of the Alaska Peninsula through the top of the Aleutian Islands, the Aleutians East Borough is located in one of the world’s most beautiful, dramatic regions. This image was acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite on June 16, 2000. The islands, known before 1867 as the Catherine Archipelago, comprise five groups (east to west) It is between 80 km and 160 km (50 and 100 miles) wide. Devoid of trees, the islands are covered with a luxuriant, dense growth of herbage, including grasses, sedges and many flowering plants. Mastering the Aleut and Tlingit languages, he translated portions of the New Testament, composed a catechism and hymnal, and began an exhaustive research into the traditions, beliefs and superstitions of the tribes within the Aleutian group. The climate of the islands is oceanic, with moderate and fairly uniform temperatures and heavy rainfall. The U.S. Navy, having broken the Japanese naval radio codes, knew that this was a diversion, and it did not expend large amounts of effort in defending the islands. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. They are all located between 51° and 55° N latitude and 173° E and 161° W longitude. Aleut Fact Sheet (Unangan) Native American Facts For Kids was written for young people learning about the Aleut tribe for school or home-schooling reports. The chain of small islands that make up the Aleutian Islands separates the Bering Sea from the main part of the Pacific Ocean. He settled on Spruce Island (which he called "New Valaam"), near Kodiak Island, and often defended the rights of the Aleuts against the Russian trading companies. 54 reviews. The Aleutian Islands Campaign . The native people refer to themselves as Unangan, and are more commonly known by most non-natives as the "Aleut.". A new study suggests a wide crater, created … Newhall, to get a good look at the snow-covered cone. The summers in Aleutian Islands do not get warm enough to favor a good growth for these transplants. The shock had a moment magnitude of 8.6 and a maximum Mercalli … During the 1980s, there were some llama being raised on Unalaska. On a map, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands form an increasingly faint wisp of land arching across the North Pacific toward the Russian coast. The negotiations concluded after an all-night session with the signing of the treaty at 4 o'clock in the morning of March 30, with the purchase price set at $7,200,000 (approximately 1.9¢ per acre). Sitka used to be considered the rainiest part of the United States, however only has 207.9 rainy days per year. The Aleutian Islands are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones, forming part of the Aleutian Arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900 km) westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula, marking a line between the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The Aleutian islands are broken into three regions based on different ecology and oceanographic factors. It is composed of a series of sedimentary islands capped by steep volcanoes. This attack came to be called the "Pearl Harbor of the North." The Aleutian Islands are a series of 14 large and 55 small volcanic islands belonging to the American state of Alaska and the Russian territory of Kamchatka Krai. They form part of the state of Alaska in the United States. The Refuge protects the vast wildlife of the Islands, and their habitats, thus protecting the way of life of the Aleuts, who have always lived by hunting and fishing. The Aleutian Islands (possibly from the Chukchi language aliat, meaning "island") are a chain of more than 150 mostly volcanic islands forming an island arc that seperates the Bering Sea in the north from the main portion of the Pacific Ocean. Most of the civilian population of the Aleutians were interned by the United States in camps in the Alaska Panhandle. He was instrumental in spreading Christianity over a vast extent of territory, visiting not only the Aleutian Islands, but all the coast of the mainland from Bristol Bay to the Kuskokwim. Soon after the Russians had arrived on their island, Aleut women had also begun working for the company. The earliest known evidence of human occupation in the Americas is much further south, in New Mexico and Peru; the earliest human sites in Alaska have probably been submerged by rising waters during the current interglacial period. Forty two Americans were taken to a prison camp in Hokkaido, Japan, where 16 of them died. Explorers, traders, colonists, fur traders, and missionaries arrived from Russia beginning in 1741. Kurle spent three summers conducting intertidal surveys on 32 islands in the Aleutian Archipelago--17 with rats and 15 without. During World War II, small areas of the Aleutian islands were occupied by Japanese forces, when Attu and Kiska were invaded in order to divert American forces away from the main Japanese attack at Midway Atoll. The Aleutian Islands Large Marine Ecosystem is part of the Aleutian-Commander Island archipelago that extends more than 3,000 km between Alaska and Russia, and forms the southern border of the Bering Sea. At that time, Fire Island had stopped smoking, as apparently had Bogoslof. But, today English is the language the Aleut people most commonly use. aleutian islands facts. 6 Reasons Why Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are a Hot Spot for Sea Life. The purchase was derided by many in the U.S. as Seward's folly, Seward's icebox, and Andrew Johnson's polar bear garden, because it was believed foolhardy to spend so much money on the remote region. In all of Alaska, it was the Unangax region that experienced the earliest contact with foreigners. These cones were nearly demolished by an explosive eruption on September 1, 1907. Korovin is a 1533 m high stratovolcano in the central Aleutian Islands and one of the most active volcanoes in Alaska. The islands… Here are six cool facts about this remote area of Alaska. Many Aleuts were moved to the Pribilof Islands on a seasonal basis, many times against their will, so that fur seals could be captured there as well. Crossing longitude 180°, they are the westernmost part of the United States. Despite some attempts to eliminate slavery and reduce cruel treatment in the 1790s, the Russian-American Shelikhov company depended on the labor of Aleut hunters to collect sea otter pelts. Learn Aleutian Islands facts for kids. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',162,'0','0'])); The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a southwest trend, but near the 129th meridian its direction changes to the northwest. The governor of Alaska ordered state flags lowered to half-staff to honor the 78 soldiers who died during the two-day Japanese air attack in 1942. The almost 70 islands …  The mean annual temperature for Unalaska, the most populated island of the group, is about 38 °F (3.4 °C), being about 30 °F (−1.1 °C) in January and about 52 °F (11.1 °C) in August. There are many volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active, however; many of the islands are not wholly volcanic, but contain crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of lignite. The need for an Aleutian advance base further west became urgent. The Aleutian Islands harbor some of the most diverse and dense aggregations of cold water corals known; the density and diversity of these Alaskan corals rival tropical coral reefs. The Aleutian islands are unique in that they are the westernmost place in the United States, and, because they cross the 180° parallel, they are technically also the easternmost. The Aleutian Islands consequently belonged to Russia, until that country in 1867 transferred to the United States all its possessions in America. The island chain is a western continuation of the Aleutian Range on the mainland. Cape Promontory, Cape Lutkes on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. After World War II a U.S. Coast Guard fleet was stationed at Unalaska Island to patrol the sealing grounds and, after 1956, to enforce a convention on seal protection agreed upon by the United States, Canada, Japan, and the Soviet Union. 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